Table 2

Mixed effects models to determine the associations between social service and public health spending and homicide rates in the USA, 2005–2009†

All states, including DC (n=255) B (SE)All states, excluding DC (n=250) B (SE)
UnadjustedAdjustedUnadjustedAdjusted
Total social service and public health spending per individuals living in poverty (per $10 000)−0.43 (0.08)**−0.87 (0.15)**−0.37 (0.08)**−0.60 (0.13)**
Year0.03 (0.05)−0.08 (0.05)0.00 (0.04)−0.04 (0.04)
% White−0.05 (0.02)*−0.05 (0.02)**
% Female1.11 (0.32)**0.90 (0.27)**
% Children from single parent homes0.17 (0.03)**0.09 (0.03)**
Log (GDP/capita)9.33 (2.05)**4.51 (1.84)*
  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01.

  • †Includes a repeated statement indicating measures come from states over multiple years; spending data and all covariates are from the years 2004 to 2008, while homicide rates are from 2005 to 2009 in order to reflect a 1-year lag between spending and homicide.

  • GDP = gross domestic product