Table 2

Impact of physician–pharmaceutical industry interaction on physician

#AttitudesPrescribing behaviourKnowledgeFormulary requestsQuality of evidence (GRADE)
GiftsReceiving higher number of gifts associated with belief that PSR (pharmaceutical representative) have no impact on their prescribing behaviour1 14 39 Moderate
Drug samplesPositive attitude towards the drug industry and the representatives11 21 34 Higher prescription of the company drug21 41 High
Pharmaceutical representative speakers Irrational prescribing
16 18 34
Inability to identify false claims16 Increased prescription of sponsor’s drug24 High
Honoraria and research fundingPositive attitude towards sponsor’s drug60 Increased prescription of sponsor’s drug24 Low
Conference travel Significant increase in prescribing of sponsor drug18 Increased prescription of sponsor’s drug24 Low
Industry-paid lunchesPositive attitude towards sponsor’s drug14 34 Significant increase in prescribing of sponsor drug62 Increased formulary request for company drug11 21 High
CME sponsorshipPositive attitude towards sponsor’s drug24 65 Avoidance of industry-sponsored CME associated with more rational prescribing habits33 Moderate
Interaction withPSRPositive attitude towards PSR drugs1 11 14 58 Higher prescription of the company drug24 Positive correlation between the physicians’ prescribing cost and the information provided by the drug representative during the interaction26 Increased prescription of sponsor’s drug24 High
  • However, there was a significant association between attending industry-paid lunches and increased prescription of branded drugs.52 53 72