Table 2

Results of multilevel logistic regression models for the association between urbanicity or individual/household socioeconomic factors and termination of exclusive breastfeeding <6 months, among ever-breastfed children under six in the APCAPS household survey*.

Termination of exclusive breastfeeding <6 months (n=7100)
UnadjustedModel 1
(null)
Model 2
(L1 confounders +L2 SES)
Model 3
(L1 confounders +L3 urbanicity)
Model 4
(L1 confounders +L2 SES +L3 urbanicity)
n (%) OR(95% CI)OR(95% CI)OR(95% CI)OR(95% CI)OR(95% CI)
Fixed effects
Maternal educationNo formal schooling615(29.1)refrefref
Primary534(38.6)3.42(2.23 to 5.25)3.37(2.13 to 5.31)3.36(2.13 to 5.30)
Secondary+1231(38.2)1.82(1.29 to 2.57)1.69(1.12 to 2.54)1.69(1.12 to 2.54)
Maternal employmentNot working1584(33.5)refrefref
Working796(33.7)0.94(0.69 to 1.28)1.43(1.00 to 2.03)1.43(1.00 to 2.04)
SLIPoorest280(26.8)refrefref
Poorer432(32.9)1.80(1.07 to 3.02)1.65(0.97 to 2.81)1.66(0.98 to 2.82)
Middle525(35.1)2.24(1.36 to 3.71)2.08(1.24 to 3.50)2.09(1.24 to 3.51)
Richer564(35.1)2.19(1.33 to 3.59)1.98(1.17 to 3.34)1.99(1.18 to 3.35)
Richest579(35.3)2.22(1.35 to 3.65)2.11(1.22 to 3.63)2.11(1.23 to 3.64)
trend† (p value) 0.004 0.003 0.015
Urbanicity Low459(33.7)refref
Medium517(27.5)0.49(0.15 to 1.56)0.48(0.15 to 1.54)0.48(0.15 to 1.51)
High1404(36.4)1.10(0.35 to 3.45)1.09(0.34 to 3.43)1.04(0.34 to 3.20)
trend(p value) 0.87 0.89 0.91
Random effects
Level 2 (mothers) variance (SE) 13.619(1.2202)13.9036(1.2454)13.9888(1.2531)13.90721.2456
PCV (compared with null)(%)ref−2.09−2.71−2.11
Level 3 (villages) variance (SE) 1.4949(0.4712)1.4429(0.4574)1.3870(0.4427)1.32000.4235
PCV (compared with null)(%)ref3.487.2211.70
PCV (compared with model 2) (%)§ref8.52
  • *All ORs calculated using multilevel modelling and complete case sample (see figure 2).

  • †Test for trend: p value including variable as linear.

  • ‡Proportional change in variance ((model 1 variance – model X variance)/model 1 variance)*100%.

  • §Proportional change in variance ((model 2 variance – model 4 variance)/model 2 variance)*100%.

  • APCAPS, Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study; SLI, standard of living index.