Table 1

Characteristics of ever-breastfed children under six in the APCAPS household survey, by village urbanicity tertile (n=7839)

Urbanicity (measured by night-time light intensity)All
High tertile 1 (n=4276)Medium tertile 2 (n=2082)Low tertile 3 (n=1476)
n(%)n(%)n(%)n(%)
Exclusive breastfeeding ≥6 months*Yes2495(63.5)1400(72.8)915(66.4)4810(66.5)
No1436(36.5)522(27.2)462(33.6)2420(33.5)
Continued breastfeeding ≥24 months†Yes1701(57.9)927(65.0)717(70.4)3345(62.2)
No1236(42.1)499(35.0)302(29.6)2037(37.8)
Infant sexMale2189(51.2)1069(51.2)748(50.5)4006(51.1)
Female2087(48.8)1013(48.7)733(49.5)3833(48.9)
Age of child at survey0–11337(31.3)650(31.2)457(30.9)2444(31.2)
2–31520(35.5)718(34.5)535(36.1)2773(35.4)
4–51419(33.2)714(34.3)489(33.0)2622(33.4)
Birth order11824(43.1)883(42.7)607(41.0)3314(42.6)
21667(39.4)798(38.6)588(39.8)3053(39.2)
≥3743(17.5)389(18.8)284(19.2)1416(18.2)
missing 42 12 2 56
mean (SD)1.79(0.85)1.80(0.85)1.82(0.85)1.80(0.85)
Age of mother at birth<20737(17.3)364(17.6)276(18.6)1377(17.6)
20–242410(56.5)1238(59.6)862(57.7)4510(57.7)
25–29917(22.1)393(19.0)288(20.2)1598(20.2)
30+198(44.6)78(3.8)54(3.6)330(4.2)
missing 14 9 1 24
mean (SD)22.9(3.6)22.7(3.4)22.7(3.5)22.8(3.5)
Family structureNuclear2866(67.6)1306(63.7)942(64.0)5114(65.9)
Joint/extended1371(32.4)745(36.3)530(36.0)2646(34.1)
missing 39 31 9 79
Maternal educationNo formal schooling1054(24.7)663(32.0)558(37.7)2275(29.1)
Primary880(20.6)390(18.8)284(19.2)1554(19.9)
Secondary+2329(54.6)1022(49.3)638(43.1)3989(51.0)
missing 13 7 1 21
Maternal employmentNot working3144(73.8) 1342 (64.7) 815 (55.0)5301(67.8)
Working1119(26.2) 733 (35.3) 666 (45.0)2518(32.2)
missing 13 7 0 20
Standard of living (SLI) indexPoorest611(14.3)318(15.3)242(16.3)1171(14.9)
Poorer736(17.2)422(20.3)288(19.4)1446(18.5)
Middle816(19.1)458(22.0)378(25.5)1652(21.1)
Richer964(22.5)497(23.9)314(21.2)1775(22.6)
Richest1148(26.9)386(18.5)259(17.5)1793(22.9)
missing 1 1 0 2
  • *Restricted to ever-breastfed infants aged at least 6 months not yet weaned/with age at weaning (n=7230).

  • †Restricted to ever-breastfed infants aged at least 24 months still breastfed/with age at cessation of breastfeeding (figure 3) (n=5382).