Table 2

Multivariate associations between risk factors and perpetration of physical violence by school staff against students in the past week in Luwero District, Uganda (n=497 staff)

Risk factorsAdjusted OR95% CIp value
Individual factors (staff background characteristics)*
Sex
 Female1
 Male1.080.72 to 1.610.73
Age
 18–29 years1
 30–39 years1.751.04 to 2.950.04
 40+ years1.090.57 to 2.08
Job at school
 Teacher1
 Headmaster0.550.23 to 1.36<0.001
 Administrative staff0.170.08 to 0.34
Number of offspring
 0 children1
 1–2 children2.651.35 to 5.190.006
 3+ children1.520.75 to 3.05
Victim of child sexual abuse
 No1
 Yes0.340.13 to 0.850.02
Victim of intimate partner violence
 No1
 Yes1.611.05 to 2.450.03
Use of violence against non-students
 No1
 Yes2.231.11 to 4.470.02
Community factors*
Social norms accepting of physical discipline within community
 Low1
 Medium0.930.54 to 1.620.81
 High0.840.49 to 1.43
Socioeconomic status
 High1
 Medium1.180.68 to 2.070.75
 Low1.230.70 to 2.15
School factors†
Social norms accepting of physical discipline among school staff
 Low1
 Medium1.280.74 to 2.210.67
 High1.140.66 to 2.97
Perceived quality of school climate
 High1
 Medium1.470.82 to 2.630.37
 Low1.060.61 to 1.84
Individual factors (staff attitudes)‡
Personal acceptance of physical discipline
 Low1
 Medium0.890.50 to 1.56<0.001
 High2.221.28 to 3.84
Perceived quality of school climate
 High1
 Medium0.800.46 to 1.360.70
 Low0.850.0.48 to 1.50
Job satisfaction
 High1
 Medium1.280.76 to 2.160.46
 Low1.390.81 to 2.39
  • All analysis conducted using logistic regression with a random effect at the school level to account for clustering. p values derived from likelihood ratio tests. Missing data excluded.

  • *Adjusted for staff background characteristics and community factors only (model 1).

  • †Adjusted for staff background characteristics, community factors and school factors (model 2).

  • ‡Adjusted for staff background characteristics, community factors, school factors and staff attitudes (model 3).