Table 4

Characteristics of the studies included in the thematic synthesis

PaperYearSettingSampleStudy methodology
Booker et al 7 2013UK ambulance service16 adult participants (patients and carers)Qualitative semistructured interview study; thematic analysis
Ahl et al 28 2006Swedish ambulance service20 adult participants (patients)Qualitative interview study, content analysis
Campbell et al 29 2006Scottish primary care78 adult participants (patients)Qualitative semistructured interviews and focus groups, inductive thematic analysis
Rantala et al 30 2015Swedish ambulance service12 adult participants (patients)Qualitative open-ended interviews, inductive phenomenological hermeneutic analysis
Porter et al 31 2007UK ambulance service25 adult participants (paramedics)Qualitative focus group study; thematic analysis
Togher et al 32 2014UK ambulance service30
(22 patients, eight spouses)
Qualitative interview study, thematic analysis and mapping