Table 2

Comparison of the metal load of the mothers in the cross sectional convenience sample and in subgroups 1, 2 and 3 with that of reference ranges of standards from areas not involved in the war. Comparison of the 95th percentile of metal load in the wholesample and in subgroups 1–3 with that of standards from areas not involved in wars. Confidence intervals are shown. Results with 95th percentiles significantly higher than the reference value are enhanced in light blue and in bold. Values are reported in ppm. Subgroups 1 and 2 are mothers ‘proximally exposed’ to attacks and subgroup 3 those that reported no exposure

All mothersI (n=502)Exposure group 1 (n=282)Exposure group 2 (n=61)Exposure group 3 (n=159)Reference value
Metal*95th percentile95% CI95th percentile95% CI95th percentile95% CI95th percentile95% CI95°percentile
Al 16.91 13.8821.68 15.37 13.0621.63 15.60 12.6047.60 18.87 13.5725.11 <8
Fe 40.16 35.2552.28 41.07 34.5055.07 35.52 26.49418.33 40.26 34.5268.23 1.6–17
Mg 1260.00 12601123 1198 11081381 1265.00 1012.2711 30 1510 1057.1745 20–130
Mn 2.90 2.383.44 2.87 2.283.40 4.52 1.8913.20 2.99 2.184.76 0.05–0.92
Ba 29.69 24.0449.18 42.52 26.98137.13 22.07 15.1333.90 20.10 15.4653.45 <4.64
As 0.24 0.210.28 0.23 0.200.280.280.140.38 0.25 0.210.50 <0.2
Cd 0.24 0.200.300.200.180.300.250.190.47 0.28 0.200.37 <0.2
Co 0.57 0.370.76 0.75 0.501.040.570.240.720.320.220.69 0.01–0.30
Cr 2.93 2.433.29 2.28 2.102.97 3.95 2.797.52 3.20 2.643.74 0.02–0.21
Cs0.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.00 <0.01
Cu40.7333.6052.2448.5337.7271.7835.6723.63145.0031.1027.5162.63 Oct-41
Hg 1.62 1.164.84 1.50 0.973.14 20.61 0.952480.00 1.41 1.0824.20 <0.60
Mo0.260.210.320.230.180.300.400.250.780.280.200.38 0.03–1.00
Ni 2.76 2.233.56 2.76 2.233.90 2.05 1.693.31 3.10 2.054.51 <1.00
Pb 6.50 6.007.35 6.65 6.177.98 6.47 3.777.25 6.17 5.259.67 <3.0
Se0.880.860.950.870.830.950.990.848.470.890.870.97 0.40–1.70
Sn0.750.610.980.750.571.040.860.491.940.710.551.09 <0.70
Sr 136.00 122.39160.26 134.85 118.00162.53 161.50 113.661480.00 142.00 108.46197.21 0.65–6.90
Ti0.820.731.000.760.701.010.720.511.450.890.691.15 <1.50
U 0.53 0.460.68 0.46 0.400.62 0.71 0.482.49 0.65 0.481.01 <0.10
V 1.40 1.261.56 1.27 1.161.40 1.88 1.393.92 1.56 1.251.80 0.01–0.20
W 1.37 1.072.28 1.76 1.062.74 2.48 1.207.27 0.99 0.481.52 <0.02
Zn 990.5 902.21202,8 1029.6 889.71269 990.1 767.31657.1 926.53 671.201569.16 150–272
  • *Al, aluminium; Fe, iron; Mg, magnesium; Mn, manganese; Ba, barium; As, arsenic; Cd, cadmium; Co, cobalt; Cr, chromium; Cs, cesium; Cu, copper; Hg, mercury; Mo, molybdenum; Ni, nickel; Pb, lead; Se, selenium; Sn, tin; Sr, strontium; Ti, titanium; U, uranium; V, vanadium; W, tungsten; Zn, zinc.