Table 2

The independent association between tobacco use and respiratory health and sleep-related symptoms (adjusted OR (95% CI))

Tobacco users
Snus users (n=2265)Smokers (n=3136)Smokers and snus users (n=597)
Asthma1.51 (1.28 to 1.77)0.96 (0.82 to 1.13)0.93 (0.65 to 1.33)
Asthmatic symptoms
 Wheezing1.50 (1.33 to 1.69)2.89 (2.64 to 3.17)2.09 (1.71 to 2.55)
 Wheezing and breathlessness1.42 (1.23 to 1.65)2.11 (1.89 to 2.37)1.46 (1.12 to 1.90)
 Wheezing without having a cold1.50 (1.30 to 1.73)2.67 (2.40 to 2.98)2.17 (1.73 to 2.73)
 Night-time chest tightness1.21 (1.05 to 1.40)1.57 (1.40 to 1.75)1.43 (1.12 to 1.82)
 Night-time attacks of breathlessness1.02 (0.83 to 1.24)1.44 (1.24 to 1.67)1.58 (1.16 to 2.13)
 Night-time coughing1.10 (0.99 to 1.23)1.79 (1.64 to 1.94)1.79 (1.49 to 2.15)
Chronic bronchitis1.19 (1.03 to 1.37)2.39 (2.16 to 2.65)1.85 (1.48 to 2.31)
Allergic rhinitis1.17 (1.05 to 1.30)1.01 (0.91 to 1.11)0.92 (0.75 to 1.13)
Chronic rhinosinusitis1.28 (1.09 to 1.50)1.78 (1.57 to 2.02)1.78 (1.38 to 2.29)
Sleeping problems
 Snoring1.41 (1.25 to 1.58)1.78 (1.60 to 1.97)2.16 (1.77 to 2.63)
 DIS1.76 (1.56 to 1.99)1.98 (1.79 to 2.19)2.95 (2.43 to 3.58)
 DMS0.74 (0.66 to 0.83)0.97 (0.88 to 1.06)0.91 (0.75 to 1.12)
 EDS1.18 (1.07 to 1.31)1.29 (1.19 to 1.41)1.38 (1.16 to 1.65)
 EMA0.87 (0.76 to 1.00)1.14 (1.03 to 1.27)0.91 (0.70 to 1.17)
 Use of hypnotics1.33 (1.07 to 1.65)2.08 (1.81 to 2.39)2.77 (2.05 to 3.74)
  • Associations with a p value of <0.05 are marked as bold.

  • Adjusted for gender, age, BMI, centre, educational level and physical activity.

  • BMI, body mass index; DIS, difficulty initiating sleep; DMS, difficulty maintaining sleep; EDS, excessive daytime sleepiness; EMA, early morning awakening at least three to five nights/week.