Table 4

Association between a history of snus use and respiratory health and sleep-related symptoms among never-smokers (adjusted OR (95% CI)

Ex-snus users (n=832)Snus users (n=1169)
Asthma1.06 (0.79 to 1.40)1.50 (1.21 to 1.86)
Asthmatic symptoms
 Wheezing1.10 (0.89 to 1.36)1.56 (1.32 to 1.84)
 Wheezing and breathlessness1.00 (0.76 to 1.31)1.37 (1.12 to 1.69)
 Wheezing without having a cold1.24 (0.97 to 1.59)1.51 (1.23 to 1.84)
 Night-time chest tightness1.01 (0.78 to 1.30)1.41 (1.16 to 1.71)
 Night-time attacks of breathlessness1.27 (0.92 to 1.76)1.42 (1.09 to 1.86)
 Night-time coughing1.14 (0.96 to 1.37)1.29 (1.11 to 1.50)
Chronic bronchitis0.91 (0.70 to 1.19)1.45 (1.20 to 1.76)
Allergic rhinitis0.95 (0.80 to 1.12)1.13 (0.98 to 1.30)
Chronic rhinosinusitis0.95 (0.71 to 1.28)1.36 (1.10 to 1.70)
Sleeping problems
 Snoring1.37 (1.12 to 1.68)1.59 (1.34 to 1.89)
 DIS0.81 (0.62 to 1.05)1.68 (1.41 to 2.00)
 DMS1.20 (1.01 to 1.42)0.72 (0.60 to 0.85)
 EDS1.00 (0.85 to 1.18)1.08 (0.94 to 1.24)
 EMA1.28 (1.03 to 1.59)0.85 (0.69 to 1.06)
 Use of hypnotics1.32 (0.87 to 2.01)1.26 (0.87 to 1.84)
  • Adjusted for gender, age, BMI, centre, educational level and physical activity.

  • BMI, body mass index; DIS, difficulty initiating sleep; DMS, difficulty maintaining sleep; EDS, excessive daytime sleepiness; EMA, early morning awakening at least three to five nights/week.