Table 3

GRADE summary of findings table

An extra two cups of coffee per day for preventing HCC
Patient or population: risk of HCC
Setting: primary/secondary care
Intervention: two extra cups of coffee per day
Comparison: usual coffee consumption
OutcomesAnticipated absolute effects* (95% CI)Relative effect
(95% CI)
Number of participants
(studies)
Quality of the evidence
(GRADE)
Comments
Risk with no coffeeRisk with coffee
HCC assessed with: cancer registries, death records and medical recordsHighRR 0.65 (0.59 to 0.72)1825 cases, 2905 controls, 2115/1 683 071 exposed, 654/399 566 unexposed
(26 observational studies)
⨁◯◯◯
VERY LOW
The RR corresponds to two extra cups of coffee per day.
50 per 100033 per 1000
(30 to 36)
GRADE Working Group grades of evidence
High quality: We are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect
Moderate quality: We are moderately confident in the effect estimate: The true effect is likely to be close to the estimate of the effect, but there is a possibility that it is substantially different.
Low quality: Our confidence in the effect estimate is limited: The true effect may be substantially different from the estimate of the effect.
Very low quality: We have very little confidence in the effect estimate: The true effect is likely to be substantially different from the estimate of effect.
  • *The risk in the intervention group (and its 95% CI) is based on the assumed risk in the comparison group and the relative effect of the intervention (and its 95% CI).

  • †The quality of evidence rating was downgraded because of (1) risk of bias, (2) indirectness and (3) publication bias.

  • GRADE, Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma.