Table 4

Adjusted risk ratios between multiple birth/potential confounding variables and adverse intrapartum-related fetal/neonatal outcomes, accounting for clustering within twin pairs

Fresh stillbirth aRR (95% CI)Early neonatal mortality aRR (95% CI)Signs of neonatal encephalopathy (early neonatal period) aRR (95% CI)Any of the aforementioned conditions aRR (95% CI)
Multiple birth1.20 (0.39 to 3.71)4.57 (1.44 to 14.50)2.26 (0.97 to 5.26)3.01 (1.90 to 4.78)
Preterm2.17 (1.46 to 3.23)1.93 (0.93 to 3.99)0.85 (0.60 to 1.21)1.59 (1.31 to 1.94)
Facility delivery (reference: home delivery)1.17 (0.80 to 1.71)0.89 (0.43 to 1.83)1.66 (1.29 to 2.14)1.62 (1.36 to 1.94)
Maternal stature <145 cm1.42 (0.89 to 2.27)1.63 (0.75 to 3.53)1.46 (1.07 to 2.00)1.44 (1.16 to 1.79)
Low birth weight (<2500 g)*5.42 (2.35 to 12.49)1.07 (0.82 to 1.40)
Primiparous1.17 (0.77 to 1.76)1.00 (0.46 to 2.20)1.43 (1.09 to 1.88)1.33 (1.09 to 1.61)
Education (reference: no education)
1–9 years1.07 (0.68 to 1.70)0.52 (0.15 to 1.73)0.77 (0.56 to 1.08)0.83 (0.66 to 1.04)
≥10 years0.57 (0.25 to 1.28)1.89 (0.60 to 5.95)0.72 (0.46 to 1.13)0.59 (0.42 to 0.84)
Mother’s age at marriage (reference: ≥18 years)
<18 years1.11 (0.71 to 1.72)2.43 (0.88 to 6.69)1.04 (0.78 to 1.39)1.05 (0.86 to 1.29)
  • *Newborn weight is not included for stillbirth-related outcomes.