Table 2

Baseline patient characteristics of the included cluster randomised controlled trials studying patients with prevalent diabetes

 Cleveringa et al33 *Sönnichsen et al45Frei et al44
InterventionControlInterventionControlInterventionControl
N16991692649840162164
Follow-up duration (years)111111
Type of diabetes patientsPrevalent diabetesPrevalent diabetesPrevalent diabetes
CountryNetherlandsAustriaSwitzerland
Baseline patient characteristics
 Age (years)65.2±11.365.0±11.065.4±10.465.5±10.465.7±10.468.3±10.6
 Sex (% men)48.249.851.053.15460
 Ethnicity (% Caucasian)97.797.6
 Diabetes duration (years)5.8±5.75.4±5.87.0±6.59.5±7.410.3±7.8
 Current smoking (% yes)22.616.613.4149
 Body mass index (kg/m2)30.0±5.330.2±5.330.4±5.129.7±4.930.5±5.330.7±5.9
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)149±22149±21141±19139±17140±18138±17
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)83±1182±1183±1182±1083±1079±10
 UKDPS CHD risk (%)22.5±16.5§21.7±15.8§
 HbA1c (%)7.1±1.37.0±1.17.46±1.537.34±1.317.8±1.57.6±1.1
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.0±1.04.9±1.15.15±1.145.02±1.095.0±1.24.7±1.1
 HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)1.36±0.361.32±0.351.35±0.391.32±0.361.2±0.31.3±0.4
 LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)2.8±0.922.8±0.952.87±0.962·87±0·912·8±1·12·5±1·1
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L)8·0±2·47·8±2·28·4±2·57·7±2·2
 Creatinine (μmol/L)87.5±27.785.9±22.584.9±30.984.9±34.5
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.8±1.11.8±1.32.14±1.822.00±1.73
 Urinary albumin (mg/L)
 Quality of life: PCS¶43.9±10.9
 Quality of life: MCS¶50.1±11.3
 History of myocardial infarction (%)47.163.38.4
 History of stroke (%)7.0
 Diabetic retinopathy (%)2.93.3--9.38.1
 Peripheral neuropathy (%)18.613.4
  • Values are mean±sd, or percentages. Bold font indicates that the particular baseline characteristic differed statistically significantly between the intervention and control group.

  • *The information on BMI, fasting glucose, creatinine, triglycerides and retinopathy was obtained through contacting the authors.

  • †The information on diabetes duration, smoking, history of myocardial infarction and history of stroke was obtained from the publication describing baseline characteristics of the total study population and stratified by sex (Flamm et al60).

  • ‡The quality of life summary scores for the physical and mental component were obtained from the publication describing baseline characteristics of the total study population (Frei et al61). Peripheral neuropathy is represented by ‘pathological foot status’ and diabetic retinopathy is represented by ‘annual eye exam: pathological’.

  • §Values concern the 10-year UKDPS CHD risk.

  • ¶Quality of life was assessed with the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36).

  • CHD, coronary heart disease; MCS, Mental Component Summary Score; PCS, Physical Component Summary Score; UKPDS, UK Prospective Diabetes Study.