Table 1

Demographic, drug use and cardiovascular data

THC-NoneTHC-TobTHC-Both
ParameterNone (534)Tobacco (504)THC (11)Both (114)p Valuep Valuep Value
Chronological age (years)30.47 (0.48)33.33 (0.40)40.36 (2.44)34.56 (0.88)0.00320.01000.0491
No. In longitudinal series73093731270
Male, N (%)371 (69.5%)356 (70.6%)10 (90.9%)80 (70.2%)0.22930.26100.2536
Height (cm)173.64 (0.38)173.65 (0.37)180 (1.83)173.71 (0.95)0.01720.01320.0077
Weight (kg)73.61 (0.65)74.63 (0.67)80.73 (5.28)70.39 (1.28)0.12110.18870.0204
Body Mass Index (kg/m−2)24.35 (0.18)24.66 (0.19)24.84 (1.48)23.22 (0.32)0.70430.89210.1505
Drug use
Tobacco
 Cigarettes/day0.2 (0.1)17.27 (0.42)0 (0)19.95 (0.92)0.78690.00000.0000
 Years of tobacco14 ()21.37 (2.17)23.6 (4.99)
 Packet-years tobacco0 ()19.74 (1.75)19.1 (3.55)
 Minutes after tobacco30 (9.87)115.61 (15.37)90 ()95.71 (29.74)0.06820.92440.9828
Opioids
 Buprenorphine dose (mg)7.44 (0.97)6.49 (0.24)5.05 (1.20)7.25 (0.60)0.48760.55010.4338
 Dosing buprenorphine, N (%)52 (9.7%)402 (79.7%)4 (36.4%)83 (72.8%)0.01740.00190.0302
 Heroin dose (g)0.06 (0.01)0.43 (0.02)0.25 (0.11)0.37 (0.03)0.12870.21780.3143
 Heroin duration (years)1.84 (0.31)11.02 (0.41)6.8 (3.05)11.11 (0.85)0.13980.12650.1350
 Heroin exposure (g-years)0.93 (0.2)5.47 (0.35)4.65 (2.53)5.13 (0.59)0.17720.72580.8120
Cannabis
 Cannabis use (g/d, cones=0.1 g/d)0 (0)0.06 (0.04)17.45 (5.65)10.5 (1.32)0.01150.01170.1290
 Cannabis duration (years)()28.5 (8.5)8.5 (3.5)18.94 (2.65)0.16160.2191
 Cannabis exposure (g-years)17.5 (12.5)38.88 (8.27)0.42590.4147
 Time after cannabis (min.)60 (45.17)952.5 (320.4)842.34 (81.11)0.06720.7081
Cardiovascular parameters
Central augmentation
 Vascular age32.87 (0.69)36.22 (0.77)56.91 (7.86)39.65 (1.63)0.01210.02530.0550
 Vascular age/chronological age1.09 (0.02)1.09 (0.02)1.4 (0.19)1.15 (0.04)0.14880.13930.2312
 Log (vascular age/chronological age)0.02 (0.01)0.01 (0.01)0.1 (0.06)0.04 (0.01)0.04100.04080.1452
 Vascular age—chronological age2.35 (0.53)2.87 (0.63)16.46 (6.75)5.06 (1.26)0.06350.07220.1259
 Central augmentation index (C_AI)111.39 (0.84)113.88 (0.8)133.27 (7.16)118.98 (1.77)0.00020.00050.0200
 Central augmentation pressure at HR=75 (C_AP)2.05 (0.22)3.02 (0.21)7.27 (1.8)4.02 (0.44)0.00070.00400.0329
 Central augmented press./pulse Ht. Ratio at HR=75 (C_AGPH_HR75)5.37 (0.57)7.86 (0.56)17.73 (3.99)10.88 (1.12)0.00210.01010.0725
 Central pulse height (C_PH)35.15 (0.31)36.29 (0.31)40.36 (2.32)38.09 (0.65)0.01770.05690.3014
 Central augmentation load (C_AL)8.27 (0.24)8.59 (0.22)12.55 (1.74)9.04 (0.42)0.00420.00410.0144
 Pulse pressure amplification ratio (PPAmpRatio)156.82 (0.83)154.06 (0.84)135.55 (4.88)148.63 (1.78)0.00030.00130.0280
  • Data are listed as mean (±SEM).

  • THC is an abbreviation for tetrahydrocannabinol, the major psychoactive cannabinoid present in cannabis plants.

  • The three columns on the extreme right of this table list the p values for the two-way, two-tailed comparison of the groups specified in the column headings. The statistical test used was Student's t-test. HR, heart rate.