Table 3

Unadjusted and adjusted proportional ORs for the effect of paternal involvement on SDQ scores at ages 9 and 11 years, with 95% CIs and p values

9 years11 years
Paternal involvement factor scoresUnadjusted
[n=5717]
Adjusted*
[n=6223]
Unadjusted
[n=5262]
Adjusted*
[n=5500]
Factor 1: “emotional response to baby and parenting”OR 0.79
95% CI 0.73 to 0.86
p value <0.001
OR 0.86
95% CI 0.79 to 0.94
p value 0.001
OR 0.81
95% CI 0.74 – 0.88
p value <0.001
0.89
95% CI 0.81 – 0.98
p value 0.017
Factor 2: “engagement in domestic and childcare activities”OR 1.01
95% CI 0.90 – 1.14
p value 0.854
OR 1.09
95% CI 0.97 – 1.24
p value 0.160
Factor 3: “security in role as parent and partner”OR 0.72
95% CI 0.66 – 0.78
p value <0.001
OR 0.87
95% CI 0.79 – 0.96
p value 0.006
OR 0.72
95% CI 0.66 – 0.79
p value 0.001
OR 0.89
95% CI 0.81 – 0.99
p value 0.034
  • *Adjusting for paternal and maternal EPDS score, parity, maternal age, family SES score, child's age and child's gender

  • EPDS, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; SDQ, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; SES, socioeconomic status.