Table 1

Sample characteristics and univariate associations between these characteristics and consistent condom use by FSWs with new or occasional clients in five districts of south India*†‡§

N (%) (n=1378)CCU (%)Prevalence ratio (95% CI)p Value
Sociodemographic factors
District0.024
 Bangalore369 (26.8)63.70.97 (0.83 to 1.14)
 Bellary198 (14.4)70.21.11 (0.96 to 1.29)
 Guntur208 (15.1)79.81.20 (1.05 to 1.37)
 Belgaum208 (15.1)75.01.07 (0.92 to 1.23)
 Mumbai395 (28.7)68.6Ref
Age0.175
 <25296 (21.5)74.01.07 (0.97 to 1.18)
 25+1082 (78.5)69.1Ref
Marital status0.004
 Devadasi156 (11.3)79.51.18 (1.05 to 1.32)
 Never married143 (10.4)67.10.88 (0.73 to 1.06)
 Divorced/separated/widowed651 (47.2)68.81.00 (0.89 to 1.13)
 Currently married428 (31.0)69.9Ref
Literate0.107
 Yes403 (29.2)73.21.09 (0.98 to 1.21)
 No975 (70.8)68.9Ref
Age at first sex0.562
 <15470 (34.1)67.90.96 (0.82 to 1.11)
 15+908 (65.9)71.3Ref
Sex work-related factors
Age at first sex work0.004
 <22587 (42.6)75.11.14 (1.04 to 1.24)
 22+791 (57.4)66.5Ref
Main place of solicitation0.411
 Brothel315 (22.9)68.31.06 (0.94 to 1.19)
 Home318 (23.1)74.81.09 (0.97 to 1.22)
 Rented room/lodge or other82 (5.6)72.01.10 (0.91 to 1.34)
 Public places661 (48.0)68.5Ref
Main place of entertaining0.067
 Brothel349 (25.3)78.21.17 (0.99 to 1.39)
 Home394 (28.6)66.81.11 (0.94 to 1.31)
 Rented room/lodge or other523 (38.0)68.51.02 (0.86 to 1.21)
 Public places111 (8.1)64.9Ref
Sex work sole income0.187
 Yes476 (34.5)70.31.06 (0.97 to 1.16)
 No898 (65.2)69.8Ref
FSW usually under influence of alcohol with partner0.517
 Yes542 (39.3)70.71.03 (0.94 to 1.14)
 No834 (60.5)70.0Ref
Partner usually under influence of alcohol0.063
 Yes1189 (86.3)75.80.86 (0.74 to 1.01)
 No186 (13.5)69.3Ref
Solicit independently0.046
 Yes815 (59.1)66.60.91 (0.83 to 1.00)
 No560 (40.6)75.4Ref
Intervention exposure
Number of times contacted by staff in the past month<0.001
 <2393 (28.5)60.3Ref
 2+981 (71.2)74.31.26 (1.10 to 1.44)
Number of condom demos seen in the past month0.002
 0257 (18.7)57.2Ref
 1303 (22.0)68.71.26 (1.02 to 1.56)
 2363 (26.34)76.61.44 (1.18 to 1.76)
 3+397 (28.8)76.81.36 (1.10 to 1.67)
Test for trend0.077
Duration since first contacted by intervention staff0.001
 Has not been contacted229 (16.6)54.1Ref
 <1 (>0)284 (20.6)68.01.25 (1.01 to 1.54)
 1 year284 (20.6)72.91.35 (1.09 to 1.66)
 2 to 3 years360 (26.1)74.71.44 (1.18 to 1.74)
 4 years+219 (15.9)78.51.46 (1.19 to 1.79)
Test for trend0.039
Treatment of STIs: number of grey packets received in the past 3–12 months0.259
 0668 (48.5)68.7Ref
 1129 (9.4)74.41.02 (0.88 to 1.18)
 2254 (18.4)74.41.10 (0.98 to 1.23)
 3+326 (23.7)68.10.88 (0.73 to 1.07)
Test for trend0.259
  • *Consistent condom use is defined as reporting always using condoms.

  • †Owing to missing values, the total N for each variable may be different from 1378 (total of FSW with a new or occasional client). The small number of missing values does not significantly affect the results.

  • ‡Prevalence ratios are presented with a 95% CI.

  • §CCU is defined as consistent condom use.

  • FSW, female sex worker; STI, sexually transmitted infection.