Dietary changes and associations with metabolic improvements in adults with type 2 diabetes during a patient-centred dietary intervention: an exploratory analysis
- 1Centre for Exercise Nutrition and Health Sciences, School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
- 2University of Birmingham, School of Sport, Exercise & Rehabilitation Sciences, Birmingham, UK
- 3School of Clinical Sciences, University of Bristol, Learning and Research, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK
- Correspondence to Clare England;
- Received 28 January 2014
- Revised 13 May 2014
- Accepted 20 May 2014
- Published 13 June 2014
Objectives Describe dietary intake of participants enrolled in a non-prescriptive dietary intervention and dietary changes at 6 months and explore whether these changes had a role in observed improvements in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), weight, lipids and blood pressure.
Design Secondary analysis of data from the Early ACTivity in Diabetes randomised controlled trial.
Participants 262 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes randomised to the dietary intervention.
Outcomes and analysis Changes in energy intake, macronutrients, fibre and alcohol and in weight, waist circumference, lipids, HbA1c and blood pressure at baseline and 6 months. Multivariate models were used to examine associations between dietary changes and metabolic variables.
Results Men reported reducing mean energy intake from 1903±462 kcal to 1685 kcal±439 kcal (p<0.001), increasing carbohydrate intake from 42.4±6.6% to 43.8±6.6% (p=0.002) and reducing median alcohol intake from 13 (0–27) g to 5 (0–18) g (p<0.001). Women reported reducing mean energy intake from 1582±379 kcal to 1459±326 kcal (p<0.001) with no change to macronutrient distribution and alcohol. Fibre intake was maintained. In men (n=148), weak and clinically insignificant associations were found between increased carbohydrates and reduction in HbA1c (β=−0.003 (−0.006, −0.001); p=0.009), increased fibre and reduction in total cholesterol (β=−0.023 (−0.044, −0.002); p=0.033), decreased total fat and reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (β=0.024 (0.006, 0.001); p=0.011), and decreased alcohol and reduction in diastolic blood pressure (β=0.276 (0.055, 0.497); p=0.015). In women (n=75), associations were found between a decrease in transfats and reductions in waist circumference (β=−0.029 (0.006, 0.052); p=0.015), total cholesterol (β=0.399 (0.028, 0.770); p=0.036) and LDL cholesterol (β=0.365 (0.042, 0.668); p=0.028).
Conclusions Clinically important metabolic improvements observed in a patient-centred dietary intervention were not explained by changes in macronutrients. However, a non-prescriptive approach may promote a reduction in total energy intake while maintaining fibre consumption.
Trial registration number The Early ACTID trial number ISRCTN92162869.
This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 3.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/