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The acceptance of hearing disability among adults experiencing hearing difficulties: a cross-sectional study
  1. Vinaya K C Manchaiah1,2,
  2. Peter Molander2,
  3. Jerker Rönnberg2,
  4. Gerhard Andersson2,3,
  5. Thomas Lunner2,4
  1. 1Department of Vision and Hearing Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK
  2. 2Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden
  3. 3Division of Psychiatry, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
  4. 4Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark
  1. Correspondence to : Dr Vinaya K C Manchaiah; vinaya.manchaiah{at}


Objective This study developed the Hearing Disability Acceptance Questionnaire (HDAQ) and tested its construct and concurrent validities.

Design Cross-sectional.

Participants A total of 90 participants who were experiencing hearing difficulties were recruited in the UK.

Outcome measures The HDAQ was developed based on the Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire (TAQ). Participants completed self-report measures regarding hearing disability acceptance, hearing disability, symptoms of anxiety and depression and a measure of stages of change.

Results The HDAQ has a two-factor structure that explains 75.69% of its variance. The factors identified were activity engagement and avoidance and suppression. The scale showed a sufficient internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.86). The HDAQ also had acceptable concurrent validity with regard to self-reported hearing disability, self-reported anxiety and depression and readiness to change measures.

Conclusions Acceptance is likely an important aspect of coping with chronic health conditions. To our knowledge, no previously published and validated scale measures the acceptance of hearing disability; therefore, the HDAQ might be useful in future research. However, the role of acceptance in adjusting to hearing disability must be further investigated.

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