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Does an intensive self-management structured education course improve outcomes for children and young people with type 1 diabetes? The Kids In Control OF Food (KICk-OFF) cluster-randomised controlled trial protocol
  1. Katherine J Price1,
  2. Jerry Wales1,
  3. Christine Eiser2,
  4. Julie Knowles1,
  5. Simon Heller3,
  6. Jenny Freeman4,
  7. Alan Brennan4,
  8. Amy McPherson5,
  9. Jerry Wellington6
  1. 1Sheffield Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, UK
  2. 2Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
  3. 3School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
  4. 4School of Health and Related Research, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
  5. 5Department of Health Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
  6. 6Department of Education, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Katherine J Price; kath.price{at}


Introduction The Kids In Control OF Food (KICk-OFF) is a cluster-randomised controlled trial, which aims to determine the efficacy of a 5 day structured education course for 11-year-olds to 16-year-olds with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) when compared with standard care, and its cost effectiveness. Less than 15% of children and young people with T1DM in the UK meet the recommended glycaemic target. Self-management education programmes for adults with T1DM improve clinical and psychological outcomes, but none have been evaluated in the paediatric population. KICk-OFF is a 5-day structured education course for 11-year-olds to 16- year-olds with T1DM. It was developed with input from young people, parents, teachers and educationalists.

Methods and analysis 36 paediatric diabetes centres across the UK randomised into intervention and control arms. Up to 560 participants were recruited prior to centre randomisation. KICk-OFF courses are delivered in the intervention centres, with standard care continued in the control arm. Primary outcomes are change in glycaemic control (HbA1c) and quality of life between baseline and 6 months postintervention, and the incidence of severe hypoglycaemia. Sustained change in self-management behaviour is assessed by follow-up at 12 and 24 months. Health economic analysis will be undertaken. Data will be reported according to the CONSORT statement for cluster-randomised clinical trials. All analyses will be by intention-to-treat with a two-sided p value of <0.05 being regarded as statistically significant. The study commenced in 2008. Data collection from participants is ongoing and the study will be completed in 2013.

Ethics The study has been approved by the Sheffield Research Ethics Committee.

Dissemination Results will be reported in peer reviewed journals and conferences.

Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN37042683.

  • Diabetes & Endocrinology
  • Paediatrics

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