BMJ Open 2: doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001908
  • Obstetrics and gynaecology
    • Research

An analysis of the content and clinical implications of online advertisements for female genital cosmetic surgery

Table 3

Summary of results

Criteria Findings
1. Types of FGCS offered 77 different procedures named. All sites offer labiaplasty and vaginoplasty/vaginal reconstruction.
3/10 also offer hymen repair
2. Description of procedure All sites give basic explanation of the surgical procedure
3. Use of medical language 3/10 sites refer to ‘Labial Hypertrophy’
5/10 sites referred to ‘Cosmetic Gynaecology’
4. Symptoms which surgery treats 9/10 sites claim surgery treats both physical (functional) and aesthetic (appearance) concerns
1/10 sites claim surgery improves appearance and sexual pleasure but no mention of physical symptoms
5. Benefits of surgery implied All sites claim improved appearance and relief of discomfort. 4/10 sites claim surgery improves hygiene
6. Success rates 1/10 claim 100%, 1/10 claim 95%
7. Specific reference to social advantages of surgery 2/10 sites mention social advantage including
– improving career prospects in sport and modelling,
– reduce signs of ageing
– able to wear wider range of clothing
– improved self confidence
8. Specific reference to enhancement of sexual experience 5/10 mention improved sexual relationships and enhanced sexual pleasure for woman and her partner
9. Risks of surgery All sites mention that surgery has risks
10. Absence or presence of a cautionary advice section 7/10 offer no cautionary advice
1/10 suggests that ‘proper assessment by a gynaecologist is necessary prior to embarking on surgery’
2/10 emphasis the important of careful consideration before surgery
11. Aftercare All sites give general aftercare advice on hygiene, simple analgesia, resumption of sexual intercourse etc
12. Immediate outcomes 8/10 sites mention mild discomfort and swelling
13. Long- term outcomes No adverse long-term outcome mentioned. All sites refer to non-specific positive outcomes such as social advantages and enhanced sexual pleasure
14. Absence or presence of positive 3/10 sites contain small numbers (1–3) testimonials from satisfied customers
15. Absence or presence of before and after photographs 6/10 contain before and after photographs
16. Lowest age limit for surgery No site gives a lower age limit for surgery

Don't forget to sign up for content alerts to receive selected information relevant to your specialty interests and be the first to know when the latest research is published.

Navigate This Article