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BMJ Open 2: doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-001908
  • Obstetrics and gynaecology
    • Research

An analysis of the content and clinical implications of online advertisements for female genital cosmetic surgery

Table 3

Summary of results

Criteria Findings
1. Types of FGCS offered 77 different procedures named. All sites offer labiaplasty and vaginoplasty/vaginal reconstruction.
3/10 also offer hymen repair
2. Description of procedure All sites give basic explanation of the surgical procedure
3. Use of medical language 3/10 sites refer to ‘Labial Hypertrophy’
5/10 sites referred to ‘Cosmetic Gynaecology’
4. Symptoms which surgery treats 9/10 sites claim surgery treats both physical (functional) and aesthetic (appearance) concerns
1/10 sites claim surgery improves appearance and sexual pleasure but no mention of physical symptoms
5. Benefits of surgery implied All sites claim improved appearance and relief of discomfort. 4/10 sites claim surgery improves hygiene
6. Success rates 1/10 claim 100%, 1/10 claim 95%
7. Specific reference to social advantages of surgery 2/10 sites mention social advantage including
– improving career prospects in sport and modelling,
– reduce signs of ageing
– able to wear wider range of clothing
– improved self confidence
8. Specific reference to enhancement of sexual experience 5/10 mention improved sexual relationships and enhanced sexual pleasure for woman and her partner
9. Risks of surgery All sites mention that surgery has risks
10. Absence or presence of a cautionary advice section 7/10 offer no cautionary advice
1/10 suggests that ‘proper assessment by a gynaecologist is necessary prior to embarking on surgery’
2/10 emphasis the important of careful consideration before surgery
11. Aftercare All sites give general aftercare advice on hygiene, simple analgesia, resumption of sexual intercourse etc
12. Immediate outcomes 8/10 sites mention mild discomfort and swelling
13. Long- term outcomes No adverse long-term outcome mentioned. All sites refer to non-specific positive outcomes such as social advantages and enhanced sexual pleasure
14. Absence or presence of positive 3/10 sites contain small numbers (1–3) testimonials from satisfied customers
15. Absence or presence of before and after photographs 6/10 contain before and after photographs
16. Lowest age limit for surgery No site gives a lower age limit for surgery

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